Rowman & Littlefield 出版社 2016.12
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The General Office of the Central Committee of the CCP and the General Office of the State Council issued joint opinions, stressing the need to tighten the political disciplines of lawyers while ensuring their economic and social interests. Both offices adjured government departments, state-owned enterprises and public institutions all over the country to recruit legal advisors, public and corporate in-house lawyers. Presumably, these lawyers are supposed to provide legal consulting services and ensure the rule by law.
2.6 Special Administrative Regions: Hong Kong and Macau
After returning to Hong Kong, Lam held a press conference in which he detailed how he was kidnapped in Shenzhen and held in secret detention in Ningbo. He also alleged that fellow bookseller Lee Bo was kidnapped from Hong Kong, something which Lee, who appears to continue cooperating with Chinese authorities, denies. Ningbo police have demanded Lam’s return.
2.3.1 Party organization and party membership
By the end of 2015, the number of CCP members had risen to 88.75 million, an increase of 1.1 percent over 2014, according to latest figures from the Organization Department of the CCP Central Committee. Despite the continued growth of the absolute number of members the CCP is getting elitist and old: since 2012 the proportion of party members with academic degree has overtaken the proportion of blue-collar workers and farmers; and the proportion of members who are over 60 years old exceeded a quarter of the total number of members, reaching even 26.5 percent in 2015. Another remarkable development is the steadily declining growth of new members in the last three years (see following figure). In 2015 the growth of new members fell by 4.5 percent.
2.5.1 Regional administrative organization
2.9 The cadre system and public administration
2.11.7 Judicial reform
The SPC released statistics concerning the number of cases tried (220,259) since the reforms started in May 2015 and the ratio of increase in comparison to the previous year (59.23 percent). According to the SPC, the statistics show the successful effects of the reforms on the access to justice by ordinary citizens. The reforms may contribute to restriction of political power at local level.
2.7 Local governments at the county, township, and village levels
- Kipnis, Andrew B. (2016). From Village to City: Social Transformation in a Chinese County Seat. Berkeley: University of California Press.
- Anna Ahlers, Thomas Heberer, and Gunter Schubert. “Whithering local governance in contemporary China? Reconfiguration for more effective policy implementation.” Journal of Chinese Governance. Published online 1 March, 2016.
- Shou, Huisheng (2015) “Between the Formal and Informal: Institutions and Village Governance in Rural China,” China: An International Journal 13(2): 24-44. An article providing an account of recent trends towards an increase in the accountability of rural leaders and persisting challenges in rural governance.
2.8 Public finance
2.5 Provincial- and municipal-level governments
2.6.2 Hong Kong’s political trajectory
From May 17 to 18, Zhang Dejiang, Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress and Politburo Standing Committee Member in charge of Hong Kong and Macau Affairs, visited Hong Kong. During his visit, he struck a fairly conciliatory tone but also warned of “chaos” in Hong Kong. Zhang was the first high level state leader to visit Hong Kong since Hu Jintao’s visit in 2012.