Die chinesische Regierung ist zu einem der wichtigsten Akteure in der internationalen Politik aufgestiegen. Ohne eine sorgfältige Analyse des politischen Systems ist ein fundiertes Verständnis des Aufstiegs der Volksrepublik China nicht möglich. Welchen Anteil haben politisches System und Staatstätigkeit an der wirtschaftlichen Transformation Chinas? Welche Konsequenzen haben wirtschaftliche Modernisierung und weltwirtschaftliche Integration für das politische System? Ist Chinas politisches System fähig, sich veränderten ökonomischen, technologischen, gesellschaftlichen und internationalen Bedingungen anzupassen?
Dieses Buch soll zu einem differenzierten Verständnis der Voraussetzungen, Potenziale und Risiken der politischen Entwicklung in China beitragen. Es basiert auf einer umfassenden Auswertung chinesischer Quellen und auf dem neuesten Stand der internationalen Chinaforschung. Das Buch ist jetzt auch in englischer Übersetzung beim Verlag Rowman & Littlefield Publishers erschienen.
Updates zu "Das politische System der Volksrepublik China"
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2.10 Legislation, the People’s Congresses, and the Political Consultative Conferences
The NPC approved and enacted the Charity Act. The law represents a significant reply to the widespread media exposure and public attention incurred by the incident of Guo Meimei (郭美美) who revealed the entrenched corruption of the China Red Cross and caused profound distrust in China’s state-oriented charity institutions.
Zhu Zhengfu, deputy chairman of the All-China Lawyers Association and a delegate to the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, criticized the recent spate of instances where people have appeared on state television to express their remorse for crimes they’re accused of. However, the interview with Zhu conducted by Caixin.com, a Chinese financial website, which revealed Zhu’s opinions, was censored during the Political Consultative Conference.
2.11.6 Criminal law and the penal system
According to Zhou Qiang, president of the Supreme People’s Court, the number of cases of terrorism and jeopardizing national security amounted to 1.084 in 2015, twice as many as in 2014. In the SPC’s Working Report this year, Zhou revealed a series of statistics that show more stringent imposition of criminal sanctions by courts on the political dissidents.
2.12 The military and politics
China’s military spending will rise by 7.6 percent in 2016. This low increase can be attributed to slowing GDP growth. Some experts predicted a budget increase of 20 percent. They argued that Xi’s military reforms had created many powerful enemies. To assuage them Xi would have to boost military spending substantially. Yet a sober analysis shows the opposite: PLA reforms are designed to increase the overall effectiveness of the army. Thus, PLA generals are likely support it.
2.7.2 Village self-governance and village elections
2.8 Public finance
According to the Ministry of Finance’s Budget Report, presented during the National People’s Congress in March 2016, the fiscal deficit of the central government will rise to 3 percent of GDP in 2016. At a press conference during the NPC, Finance Minister Lou Jiwei explained that the central government was planning to expand its deficit and resume more responsibility for the financing of stimulus measures to reduce the financial burden of local governments.
2.6.3 Constraints on democratization
Occupy Central activists have announced the formation of the Hong Kong National Party, a new political party that advocates the establishment of an independent “Hong Kong Republic.” Mainland media and SAR lawmakers have slammed the new party as illegal. It is the first party in the SAR to make independence its official goal.
Tensions escalated in Hong Kong over the Lunar New Year as violent clashes erupted in the district of Mongkok on February 9 after police announced they would remove unlicensed vendors and localists rallied behind the vendors. The level of aggression was very unusual for Hong Kong: People hurled bricks at police, and police fired live bullets into the air.
1.5 Analytical approaches to Chinese politics
“China’s future” by David Shambaugh (2016) combines a diverse set of analytical perspectives to argue why several pathways for China’s future are still possible and how they depend on key decisions by China's leaders, different pressures from within Chinese society, as well as actions taken by other nations. Underpinning his analysis is the assumption that China is in a state of “atrophy” and “decline”, which will continue if no major political reform takes place in the near future.
2.11.7 Judicial reform
Both regional courts of the SPC released statistics concerning the number of cases tried (more than 1.600 altogether) and the number of petitioners (more than 40.000) for the first year after its establishment. The statistics show a successful complementary role of the new regional courts in local court system.