Die chinesische Regierung ist zu einem der wichtigsten Akteure in der internationalen Politik aufgestiegen. Ohne eine sorgfältige Analyse des politischen Systems ist ein fundiertes Verständnis des Aufstiegs der Volksrepublik China nicht möglich. Welchen Anteil haben politisches System und Staatstätigkeit an der wirtschaftlichen Transformation Chinas? Welche Konsequenzen haben wirtschaftliche Modernisierung und weltwirtschaftliche Integration für das politische System? Ist Chinas politisches System fähig, sich veränderten ökonomischen, technologischen, gesellschaftlichen und internationalen Bedingungen anzupassen?
Dieses Buch soll zu einem differenzierten Verständnis der Voraussetzungen, Potenziale und Risiken der politischen Entwicklung in China beitragen. Es basiert auf einer umfassenden Auswertung chinesischer Quellen und auf dem neuesten Stand der internationalen Chinaforschung. Das Buch ist jetzt auch in englischer Übersetzung beim Verlag Rowman & Littlefield Publishers erschienen.
Updates zu "Das politische System der Volksrepublik China"
Hier finden Sie Aktualisierungen der einzelnen Kapitel bis Mai 2018. Über einen Suchbegriff oder nach den Kapiteln des Buches, können sie die englische Ausgabe, China's Political System, nach Updates durchsuchen.
2.4.1 The State Council and its inner cabinet
According to the restructuring program approved by the NPC on March 17, the new outer cabinet of the State Council consists of 26 ministries (see following table). The seven new ministries emerge through integrating similar functions previously scattered among different ministries, while the three restructured ministries extend their power by taking over duties from other bodies. Furthermore, ten new agencies subordinate to the state council, ministries and commissions will be set up (see table). With such restructuring the new State Council seeks to eliminate overlapping responsibilities among government agencies and creating a more effective regulatory architecture, which focus on economic adjustment, market regulation, social management, public service and environmental protection.
Most media overlooked two fundamental changes for the Ministry of Justice. The first one is that the former Legislative Affairs Office of the State Council is abolished. The offices’ responsibilities in terms of drafting laws and administrative regulations, coordinating legislative work and law enforcement, supervising affairs of administrative review are transferred to the Ministry of Justice. The second change is that the newly formed Central Commission for comprehensively “govern the country by law” (中央全面依法治国委员会), which is responsible for policy design of law-based governing on top level, will set up its office in the Ministry of Justice. Such institutional arrangements turn the Ministry of Justice into a main executive organ of the above-mentioned commission (see update 2.3.4).
The executive Vice-Premier Han Zheng officially inaugurated the Ministry of Natural Resources (MNR) (自然资源部) on April 10. This completely new ministry is designed to oversee the development of natural resources (including farmland, forests, wetlands, grasslands) as well as maritime resources in an environmentally friendly way, while establishing mechanisms to restore injured natural resources and protect the environment. MNR will also incorporate the spatial planning previously undertaken by the NDRC which explicitly defines the development model of local governments.
After the re-election for a second five-year term by NPC, Premier Li Keqiang nominated four Vice-Premiers and five State Councilors to form the new inner cabinet with him. The NPC confirmed this nomination on March 19. The Vice-Premiers are Han Zheng (Executive Vice-Premier), Sun Chunlan, Hu Chunhua and Liu He. The State Councilors are Wei Fenghe (Minister of Defense), Wang Yong, Wang Yi (Minister of Foreign Affairs), Xiao Jie (Secretary General of the State Council) and Zhao Kezhi (Minister of Public Security). Each of them will be will be given a new portfolio due to the upcoming restructuring of State Council.
4.6 The role of government in the banking and financial systems
The CBRC and the CIRC merged to become the CBIRC, the banking and insurance regulatory commission. The new regulator will be headed by Guo Shuqing, who is also the party secretary in the PBOC.
The previous governor of the PBOC, Zhou Xiaochuan stepped down after many years of service. He was replaced by his deputy Yi Gang.
2.3.4 Central working organs and Leading Small Groups
According to the decision taken by the CCP Central Committee in the second plenum ahead of the NPC, the former Leading Small Groups for Comprehensively Deepening of Reforms, for Cybersecurity and Informatization, for Finance and Economy and for Foreign Affairs are renamed “commissions.” Their shared responsibilities include overall policy design (so called “top-level design”), decision-making, coordination and supervision of the implementation. All these four commissions are chaired by Xi Jinping, while the other members of Politburo Standing Committee serve as his deputy.
Due to the current restructuring main parts of personnel and organizational management falls under the responsibilities of the Central Organization Department, including the Office of Central Institutional Organization Commission, which is responsible for institutional planning, as well as State Administration for Civil Service, which is responsible for the examination, recruitment, evaluation and salary of public-sector employees. After merge, the State Administration for Civil Service – previously subordinated by the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security will be abolished.
2.12 The military and politics
As part of the restructuring of state organizations announced during this year’s National People’s Congress, on March 21 Beijing announced that the Chinese Coast Guard will now be under the administration of the People’s Armed Police, which is, in turn, under the command of the Central Military Commission. Previously, the Coast Guard was controlled by the State Council’s State Oceanic Administration.
6.16 Internet security: National IT independence and China’s cyber policy
As part of the restructuring of China’s state institutions announced during the National’s People’s Congress, four of the CCP’s leading small groups – including the one of cybersecurity and informatization – will be upgraded to commissions. This will further expand their power and will institutionalize their authority over state organs. The new commission is often called the Central Cyberspace Affairs Commission and is headed by Xi Jinping himself. The Cyberspace Administration of China reports to the commission.