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1 | This MERICS China-Monitor is based on the systematic analysis of more than 100 Chinese government documents released since 2011, either on the Social Credit System itself or prominently referring to the system. The annex of this publication provides an overview of selected key policy documents.

2 | State Council (2017). “十三五“市场监管规划.

3 | Examples are the newly established Free Trade Zones in Sichuan and Shanxi: State Council (2017b). 国务院关于印发中国(浙江)自由贸易试验区总体方案的通知; State Council (2017c). 国务院关于印发中国(陕西)自由贸易试验区总体方案的通知

4 | Lin, Junyue 林钧跃 (2012). “社会信用体系理论的传承脉络与创新” (“Development and Innovation of the Social Credit System Theory)”. Credit Reference 1 (162); Ye, Xiangrong 叶湘榕 (2015). “中?模式社会信用体系建设的创新与挑战” (“Innovation and Challenges: Building up a Chinese Social Credit System”). Innovation 4 (9): 25–32.; Lin, Junyue 林钧跃

5 | State Council (2014). Plan for Establishing a Social Credit System (2014-2020) 社会信用体系建设规划纲要(2014—2020年)

6 | (2016). 中国社会信用体系建设全景报告

7 | NDRC, PBOC (2014): 国家发展改革委 人民银行关于印发《社会信用体系建设规划纲要(2014—2020年)任务分工》和《社会信用体系建设三年重点工作任务(2014—2016)》的通知

8 | State Council (2016). 国务院关于建立完善守信联合激励和失信联合惩戒制度加快推进社会诚信建设的指导意见

9 NDRC (2016). 全国信用信息共享平台信用信息目录(部际联席会议成员单位2016年版).

10 The National Enterprise Credit Information Publicity System 全国企业信用信息公示系统 is accessible via

11 | NDRC, State Commission Office for Public Sector Reform, Ministry of Civil Affairs (2015). 法人和其他组织统一社会信用代码制度建设总体方案

12 | The Credit China Platform is accessible via, apart from information on companies’ credit records and blacklisted companies, it is also a valuable source of up-to-date information on the Social Credit System’s implementation.

13 | State Council (2016)

14 | The Credit Reference Centre 征信中心 is accessible via It provides individual and company credit information. Further information on the Centre and its link to the Social Credit System provide:
PBOC (2015). 征信系统建设运行报告(2004-2014); (2016) and Standard Chartered (2014). 关于征信和社会信用体系专题宣传的通知

15 | 全国企业征信机构备案名录

16 | 十家共享单车企业入驻全国信用信息共享平台; 阿里巴巴等8家企业签署“反炒信”信用信息共享协议

17 | Northern China Chokes on Fake Emissions Data
18 | MIIT (2016). 企业平均燃料消耗量与新能源汽车积分并行管理暂行办法(征求意见稿)