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Endnotes

1 | Social governance” (社会治理) and “social management “ ( 社会管理 ) have the same definition. The difference in usage is related to politics, not to the objective the concept describes. From here onward, “social management” is always used instead of “social governance,” unless “social governance” is used in the translation of a direct quote.

2 | For more discussion on the Mass Line see: Samantha Hoffman, “Managing the State: Social Credit, Surveillance and the CCP’s Plan for China,” China Brief 17, no. 11 (2017). Timothy Heath, “Xi’s Mass Line Campaign: Realigning Party Politics to New Realities,” China Brief 13, no. 16 (2013); Zedong Mao. “Some Questions Concerning Methods of Leadership, “ 1 June 1943. https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/mao/selected-works/volume-3/ mswv3_13.htm.

3 | Steve Tsang, “Consultative Leninism: China’s new political framework,” Journal of Contemporary China 18, no. 62 (2009).

4 | “江泽民同志在全国科学技术大会上的讲话(1995年5月26日)(Comrade Jiang Zemin’s Speech at the National Science and Technology Conference (26 May 1995)),” The People’s Daily, 5 June 1995.

5 | Yu was an influential Marxist theorist and economist who helped draft Deng Xiaoping’s closing speech at the Third Plenary Session of the 11th CCP Central Committee, “Emancipate the Mind, Seek Truth from Facts and Unite as One Looking to the Future.”

6 | Yu Guangyuan, “科学有险阻 苦战能过关 (Only through hard struggles could [we] to pass the scientific challenges posed to us),” The People’s Daily, 21 September 1977. Yu was also deputy chair and consultant for the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences from 1977- 1986, and was the first head of the CASS Marxism-Leninism Institute in 1978.

7 | Norbert Wiener, Cybernetics: or Control and Communication in the Animal or the Machine, 2nd revised ed. 1961 ed. (Cambridge: The M.I.T. Press, 1948); Claude E. Shannon, “A Mathematical Theory of Communication,” The Bell System Technical Journal 27 (1948).

8 | “深情的关怀 倾心的交谈——胡锦涛总书记看望著名科学家钱学森、吴文俊纪实 (Sympathetic Thoughts, Heartfelt Talks-- A Record of General Secretary Hu Junitao’s Visit to Renowned Scientists Qian Xuesen and Wu Wenjun),” The People’s Daily, 20 January 2008.

9 | Jian Song, “系统工程与管理体制的改革 (Reform of Systems Engineering and Management Systems),” The People’s Daily, 13 September 1984. ; Jian Song, “系统工程和新技术革 命 (Systems Engineering and the New Technological Revolution),” The People’s Daily, 6 September 1984. ; “Song Jian 宋健.” http://www.chinavitae.com/biography/Song_Jian/full.

10 | Song, “系统工程和新技术革命 (Systems Engineering and the New Technological Revolution).”

11 | For example, the combined holistic and reductionist approach is mentioned in Chinese literature on managment. Xiaodong Zhang and Wei Zhang, eds., 中国管理发展报告 2015 (Annual Report on Mangement in China 2015), 管理蓝皮书 (Blue Book of Management) (Social Sciences Academic Press, 2015), 130. This Blue Book covers the broad framework of the CCP’s deepening of comprehensive reform to the management of China.

12 | Bertell Ollman, Dance of the Dialectic: Steps in Marx’s Method, (University of Illinois Press, 2003), https://www.nyu.edu/projects/ollman/books/dd.php.Online copy, quote from: Chapter 1, “Introduction: Marxism, this Tale of Two Cities,” Section 1.

13 | Jeremy Pitt, “Introduction: The Computer After Me,” ed. Jeremy Pitt, The Computer After Me: Awareness and Self-Awareness in Autonomic Systems (London: Imperial College Press, 2015). 12.

14 | CCP Central Committee, “中共中央关于今冬明春在农村中普遍展开社会主义和共产主义 教育运动的指示 (The CCP Central Committee Instructions Pertaining to Unfolding and Spreading Socialism and the Communist Education Movement in Rural Villages This Winter and Next Spring),” People’s Liberation Army Daily, 11 September 1958.

15 | Maurice J. Meisner, Mao’s China and After : A History of the People’s Republic, Transformation of Modern China Series (New York: Free Press, 1986), 227-28.

16 | Frank Dikötter. “Mao’s Great Leap to Famine.” The New York Times, 15 December 2010. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/16/opinion/16iht-eddikotter16.html.

17 | Perry, “Studying Chinese Politics: Farewell to Revolution? ,” 11; Wen-hsin Yeh, “Republican Origins of the Danwei: The Case of Shanghai’s Bank of China,” ed. Xiaobo Lü and Elizabeth J. Perry, Kindle ed., Danwei: The Changing Chinese Workplace in Historical and Comparative Perspective (London; New York: Routledge, 2015). 67; Barry Naughton, “Danwei: The Economic Foundations of a Unique Institution,” ed. Xiaobo Lü and Elizabeth J. Perry, Kindle ed., Danwei: The Changing Chinese Workplace in Historical and Comparative Perspective (London; New York: Routledge: An East Gate Book, 2015). 184-86.

18 | Walt Truszkowski, Lou Hallock, Christopher Rouff, Jay Karlin, James Rash, Michael G. Hinchey, and Roy Sterritt, Autonomous and autonomic systems : with applications to NASA intelligent spacecraft operations and exploration systems, NASA monographs in systems and software engineering, (London: Springer, 2009), 176.

19 | Roy Sterritt and Dave Bustard, “Autonomic Computing—a Means of Achieving Dependability?” (paper presented at the 10th IEEE International Conference and Workshop on the Engineering of Computer-Based Systems, 7-10 April 2003), 1.

20 | Markus C. Huebscher and Julie A. McCann, “A survey of Autonomic Computing—degrees, models and applications,” ACM Computing Surveys 30, no. 2 (2008): 2-3; Paul Horn. “Why autonomic computing will reshape IT.” CNET, 15 October 2001. https://www.cnet.com/ news/how-autonomic-computing-will-reshape-it/; Roy Sterritt and Michael G. Hinchey, “Towards Self-Managing Real-Time Systems” (paper presented at the International Multiconference on Computer Science and Information Technology, 2008). 21 | Truszkowski et al., Autonomous and autonomic systems : with applications to NASA intelligent spacecraft operations and exploration systems, 11.

22 | J.O Kephart and D.M Chess, “The vision of autonomic computing,” Computer 36, no. 1 (2003): 42.

23 | Truszkowski et al., Autonomous and autonomic systems : with applications to NASA intelligent spacecraft operations and exploration systems, 11-12.

24 | Manish Parashar and Salim Hariri, “Autonomic Computing: An Overview,” in Unconventional Programming Paradigms: International Conference UPP 2004, ed. Jean-Pierre Banâtre, et al. (Le Mont Saint Michel, France: Springer, 2004), 251-52.

25 | Truszkowski et al., Autonomous and autonomic systems : with applications to NASA intelligent spacecraft operations and exploration systems, 11-12.

26 | ““十二五”规划纲要 (Outline of the 12th Five Year Plan).” 16 March 2011.

27 | Sterritt and Hinchey, “Towards Self-Managing Real-Time Systems,” 755. 28 | Referring to the usage of the terms “纵向” vertical, and “横向” horizontal, or 纵横结合 vertical and horizontal integration.

29 | Samantha Hoffman and Peter Mattis, “China’s Proposed “State Security Council”: Social Governance under Xi Jinping,” China Policy Institute: Analysis, 21 November 2013. ; Peter Mattis, “Resolving Contradictions in Social Management,” China Brief 12, no. 18 (2012); Samantha Hoffman, “Portents of Change in China’s Social Management,” China Brief 12, no. 15 (2012); Peter Mattis, “In a Fortnight: Central Party School’s Critiques Suggest New Leadership Dynamics,” China Brief XII, no. 12 (2012).

30 | Hoffman and Mattis, “China’s Proposed “State Security Council”: Social Governance under Xi Jinping.”; Samantha Hoffman and Peter Mattis, “Inside China’s New Security Council,” 21 November 2013. ; Samantha Hoffman and Peter Mattis, “Managing the Power Within: China’s State Security Commission,” 18 July 2016.

31 | Ibid.

32 | 中国关系学院国际战略与安全研究中心(UIR Center for International Strategy and Security Studies), 中国国家安全研究报告 2014 (Annual Report on China’s National Security Studies 2014), Blue Book of National Security (Beijing: Social Sciences Academic Press (China), 2014), 149.

33 | Referring to analysis of a few dozen articles, basing on formation date, and how many times the committee was said to have met. For instance: “北京市国家安全工作领导小组召开第六 次扩大会 郭金龙讲话 (The Beijing [Municipality] State Security Work Leading Small Group Convened its Sixth Expanded Meeting, Guo Jinlong Gave a Speech).” Beijing Daily, 2016. http://cpc.people.com.cn/n1/2016/0420/c64094-28289256.html; “市国家安全领导小组 第七次全体 (扩大)会议召开 ([Hangzhou’s] State Security Leading Small Group Held its 7th (Expanded) Meeting).” Hangzhou Daily, 28 June 2017. http://www.hangzhou.gov.cn/ art/2017/6/28/art_812258_7971667.html.

34 | ““十二五”规划纲要 (Outline of the 12th Five Year Plan).”

35 | Truszkowski et al., Autonomous and autonomic systems : with applications to NASA intelligent spacecraft operations and exploration systems, 266.

36 | Hoffman, Samantha, China’s state security strategy: ‘everyone is responsible, Australian Strategic Policy Institute, 11 December 2017. https://www.aspistrategist.org.au/?p=36203.

37 | Chuanliang Shen, “The Chinese Communist Party’s Self-Management “ 2011. ; Ulrich Theobald. “baojia 保甲, the communal self-defense system.” ChinaKnowledge.de, 22 January 2016. http://www.chinaknowledge.de/History/Terms/baojia.html.

38 | Jie Li and Changrong Qu, “警力下沉 网格布警 科技强警 郑州筑牢社会治安防控体系 今年前八月各类刑事案件同比下降两成多 (The Police Force Goes Grassroots; Grid Deployment of the Force; Scientifically Strengthen the Force; Zhengzhou Building a Sturdy Social Security Prevention and Control System, For the First Eight Months This Year, Criminal Cases Have Declined by Twenty Percent),” The People’s Daily, 15 October 2006.

39 | IBM. “Autonomic Computing White Paper: An architectural blueprint for autonomic computing.” June 2005. 5, http://www-03.ibm.com/autonomic/pdfs/AC%20Blueprint%20White%20 Paper%20V7.pdf; Huebscher and McCann, “A survey of Autonomic Computing—degrees, models and applications,” 7.4.

40 | Jinzhu Yue, ““网格化+”城市服务管理的探索与展望 (“Grid + “ Urban Services Management: Exploration and Prospects),” Social Governance Review, no. 4 (2016).

41 | “十二五”规划纲要 (Outline of the 12th Five Year Plan).”

42 | Truszkowski et al., Autonomous and autonomic systems : with applications to NASA intelligent spacecraft operations and exploration systems, 266.

43 | Hoffman, Samantha, China’s state security strategy: ‘everyone is responsible, Australian Strategic Policy Institute, 11 December 2017. https://www.aspistrategist.org.au/?p=36203.

44 | Yushu Chen and Shandong Li, 富国强军 ——军民融合深度发展 (Enrich the Country, Empower the Army-- on the Deep Development of Military-Civil integration) (Beijing: Changzheng Publishing House, 2015).

45 | “上海市静安区人民政府江宁路街道办事处主要职责和机构设置 (Principal Responsibilities and Institutional Set-up of the Jiangning Street Sub-district Office, Jing’an District People’s Government, Shanghai),” Jingan, Shanghai (Government Web Portal), 21 August 2015.

46 | “2017年尧都区政府工作报告 (2017 Yaodu District [Shanxi] Government Work Report) “, 2017; “2017年株洲市政府工作报告 (2017 Zhuzhou [Hunan] Government Work Report) “, 27 February 2017.

47 | “武汉市江汉区依托网格化推行“大数据动员” (Pushing Big Data Mobilisation through Grid-isation in Jianghan District, Wuhan City).” The People’s Liberation Army Daily, 11 January 2017. http://www.81.cn/jmywyl/2017-01/11/content_7446932_4.htm.

48 | Wutao He, Yu Wang, and Xingliang Wu. “小网格里的大动员——湖北省武汉市江汉区探索推 进“智慧动员”闻思录 (Massive Mobilisation In a Small Grid-- Exploring the Advancement of “Smart Mobilisation” in Jianghan District, Wuhan, Hubei).” The People’s Liberation Army Daily, 19 September 2016. http://www.81.cn/jfjbmap/content/2016-09/19/content_156954. htm.

49 | Chuanfu Zheng, “简论快速动员 (On Rapid Mobilisation),” The People’s Liberation Army Daily, 2 August 2005.

50 | Yan Zhang. “Security Innovation Seen as Crucial.” China Daily, 20 September 2017. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2017-09/20/content_32225951.htm.